Spatial Aspects of Emigration out of Serbia. Three "Hot" Emigration Zones
The paper analyzed the dynamics of the emigration of the population of Serbia in the period of 1971 to 2011, primarily based on the results of the five latest population censuses. Special attention was paid to the spatial aspect of emigration, at the level of the lowest administrative units (municipalities). It was shown that the shares of persons working or living aboard were very uneven by municipality, and that the differences became increasingly pronounced over time. Very uneven shares of persons working or living abroad in the total population of Serbia by municipality, as well as the trend of increasing differences, also influenced the very heterogeneous spatial distribution of that emigration contingent.
Based on the concentration of population abroad, as well as the percentage of persons abroad in the total population (in the country and abroad), the paper defines three "hot" zones of substantial emigration. Zone 1 (in the central-eastern Serbia) is traditionally a high emigration area, which, for all three observed points in time (1991, 2002 and 2011), had at least twice as high a share of population abroad as the average for Serbia. Zone 2 (in the south of Serbia) consists of the municipalities of Bujanovac and Preševo, where the majority of the population consists of ethnic Albanians. The shares of population abroad was already in 1981 and 1991 noticeably higher than the average for Serbia, but also significantly lower than in Zone 1. Between 1991 and 2002, the number of emigrants from that zone was more than tripled, and their share in the total population of emigration Zone 2 increased from 6.1% to 23.1% in 2011. Zone 3 (five municipalities from the Serbian part of the region of Sandžak) did not join the group of notably emigration areas until the 1990s. Between 1991 and 2002, the number of persons abroad increased by up to six times, and their share in the total population of those five Sandžak municipalities increased from 2.3% to 12.6%.
In this paper, all three zones were analyzed, as well as the structures of emigrants based on the length of their stay abroad, the country of destination and ethnic composition. For all three zones, it is notable that the countries of destination do not differ significantly in terms of length of stay abroad, based on which the authors conclude that new emigrants primarily go to places that already have formed migrant networks.
In all three zones, the share of ethnic Serbs in the total population of the country is greater than their share in the total number of emigrants. Additionally, census data indicated that members of the local major ethnic group in Zones 2 and 3 participated significantly more often in international migration than "local" ethnic Serbs. In connection to this, the authors stress the importance of the political aspect of this issue, especially in the period of crises and wars during the 1990s.
BOLČIĆ, S. (2002). "Iseljavanje radne snage i odliv mozgova iz Srbije tokom 90-tih", u: S. Bolčić, A. Milić (ured.) Srbija na kraju milenijuma: Razaranje društva, promene i svakodnevni život (Beograd: Institut za sociološka istraživanja Filozofskog fakulteta), 159-166.
BRETTELL, C. B., J. F. HOLLIFIELD (eds.) (2007). Migration Theory: Talking Across Disciplines, 2nd Edition (New York - London: Routledge).
CASTELES, S., M. J. MILLER (2008). The Age of Migration: International Population Movements in the Modern World, 4th Edition (Basingstoke - New York: Palgrave-Macmillan and Guilford).
COUNCIL OF EUROPE (2006). Recent Demographic Developments in Europe 2005 (Strasbourg: Council of Europe publishing).
DE HAAS, H. (2005). "International Migration, Remittances and Development: Myths and Facts", Third World Quarterly, 26 (8), 1269-1284.
ELRICK, T. (2009). Transnational Networks of Eastern European Labour Migrants. Dissertation zur Erlangimg des Akademischen Grades (Berlin: Freie Universitat Berlin - Institut fur Geographische Wissenschaften).
FAIST, T (2000). "Transnationalization of International Migration: Implications for the Study of Citizenship and Culture". Ethnic and Racial Studies, 23 (2), 189-222.
GREČIĆ, V. (2010). Srpska naučna dijaspora (Beograd: Institut za međunarodnu politiku i privredu).
KING, R. (2002). "Towards a New Map of European Migration", International Journal of Population Geography, 8 (2): 89-106.
KOVAČEVIĆ, M. (1995). "Popisi stanovništva Jugoslavije", u: S. Radovanović (ured.) Stanovništvo i domaćinstva SR Jugoslavije prema popisu 1991 (Beograd: Savezni zavod za statistiku - Centar za demografska istraživanja Instituta društvenih nauka), 11-32.
KUZNETSOV, J. (2006). Diaspora Networks and the International Migration of Skills. How Countries Can Draw on Their Talent Abroad (Washington, D.C.: The World Bank).
LOWELL, B.L. (2007). "Trends in International Migration Flows and Stocks, 1975-2005", OECD – Social, Employment and Migration working papers, No. 58. http://www.oecd.org/els, preuzeto 08.11.2009.
MASSEY, D.S., J. ARANGO, G. HUGO, A. KOUAOUCI, A. PELLEGRINO, J.E. TAYLOR (1998). Worlds in Motion. Understanding International Migration at the End of the Millennium (Oxford: Clarendon Press).
MILOSAVLJEVIĆ, M., G. PENEV (2008). Social Integration of Immigrants: Analysis of the Migration Phenomenon in Serbia (Belgrade: Faculty of Political Science, University of Belgrade).
MILOSKI-TRPINAC, O. (2002). "Prvi rezultati kontrole obuhvata Popisa 2002. u Srbiji", Statistička revija, LI (1-4), 71-81.
MEYER, J.-B. (2001). "Network Approach versus Brain Drain: Lessons from the Diaspora", International Migration, 39(5), 91-110.
PENEV, G. (1984). "Ekonomske strukture stanovništva", Stanovništvo SR Srbije prema popisu od 31. marta 1981. (Beograd: Republički zavod za statistiku SR Srbije - Centar za demografska istraživanja Instituta društvenih nauka).
PORTES, A. (1996). "Globalization from Below: The Rise of Transnational Communities", in: W. P. Smith, R. P. Korczenwicz (eds.) Latin America in the World Economy (Westport, CN: Greenwood Press).
PORTES, A. (1997). "Immigration Theory For a New Century: Some Problems and Opportunities", International Migration Review, 31(4), 799-825.
PREDOJEVIĆ-DESPIĆ, J. (2009). "Migrantske mreže: nezaobilazna perspektiva u proučavanju savremenih medjunarodnih migracija", Sociološki pregled, 43 (2), 209-229.
PREDOJEVIĆ-DESPIĆ, Ј. (2010). "Mogućnosti za povezivanje i saradnju – stavovi novije srpske dijaspore u Kanadi i SAD-u", Zbornik Matice srpske za društvene nauke, 131, 443-454.
RZS (2011). "Popis stanovništva, domaćinstava i stanova u Republici Srbiji 2011. Prvi rezultati", Bilten, 540 (Beograd: Republički zavod za statistiku)
SALT, J. (2005). Current Trends in International Migration in Europe (Strasbourg: Council of Europe).
SKELDON, R (2008). "International Migration as a Tool in Development Policy: A Passing Phase?" Population and Development Review, 34(1), 1-18.
STANKOVIĆ, V. (2006). "Opšte i metodološke napomene o popisu", u: G. Penev, (ured.) Stanovništvo i domaćinstva Srbije prema Popisu 2002. godine (Beograd: Republički zavod za statsitiku Srbije – Institut društvenih nauka Centar za demografska istraživanja – Društvo demografa Srbije), 7-29.
SZS (1995). Popis '91. Stanovništvo. Knjiga 15. Osnovni skupovi stanovništva u zemlji i inostranstvu (Beograd: Savezni zavod za statistiku).
TEITELBAUM, M. S. (2008). "Demographic Analyses of International Migration", in: C. B. Brettell, J. F. Hollifield (eds.) Migration Theory: Talking Across Disciplines. 2nd Edition (New York -London: Routledge).
VERTOVEC, S. (2007). "Migrant Transnationalism and Modes of Transformation", in: A. Portes, J. De Wind (eds.) Rethinking Migration: New Theoretical and Empirical Perspectives (New York - Oxford: Berghahn Books).
ZOLDBERG, A. R. (2000). "Matters of State: Theorizing Immigration Policy", in: P. Kasinitz, C. Hirschman, J. De Wind (eds.) The Handbook of International Migration: The American Experience (New York: Russell Sage Foundation), 71-93.
Published by Institute of Social Sciences - Demographic Research Centre under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0