Variations on the European Labor Markets from Gender Point of View
In modern societies gender gap attracts significant attention. Scientists are trying to research this issue from different aspects: demographical, sociological, economic, etc. The goal of this paper is to define the basic variables that explain variation on the labor markets in Europe from the gender point of view and to compare labor market in Serbia with European countries in order to identify the countries with the most similar gender performances, with intention to overview their experiences concerning the policy measures for gender gap reduction. Analysis is conducted through observations of activity rates, employment rates, unemployment rates, inactivity rates, and long-term unemployment rates. With use of factor analysis we have identified the main factors on the labor markets in Europe and on the basis of cluster analysis we have conducted grouping of countries on the basis of discovered factors. Identification of cluster with Serbia was conducted and also the place of the Serbian labor market in the same cluster. On the basis of quantitative results qualitative analysis was conducted to overview the experience in the field of gender differences on the labor market in the countries from the same cluster as Serbia, with special attention to Italy. Contemporary researches define labor market policy measures oriented to reduction of inequalities in the field of paid and unpaid labor. Decrease of these inequalities will consequently lead to the increase of female labor supply on the market. Final result of this research is the recommendation of policy measures in order to reduce gender differences in economic activity with final goal of creating modern society in Serbia and convergence with the most advanced countries in that field.
Published by the Institute of Social Sciences - Demographic Research Centre under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0